Beaker Folk Pottery Beaker Folk Bronze Age Pottery

Prehistoric Pottery Projects with Bournemouth University Archaeology Department

This webpage is an archive of Bill's work with Bournemouth University's archaeologists.

The current project is producing replicas for the students to handle, at the lower part of the page is an account of a project in 2006, when Bill made pots with a group of students.

2022 Pottery Replicas

Bill was commissioned to produce a collection of reasonably authentic replica pots, for the students to gain an insight into their nature.

Most of the pots were fired in "Woden" - Bill's large wood fuelled pottery kiln, which is almost cheating, but replicates the temperature and oxidised atmosphere that the prehistoric pots were fired at. Ancient pottery firing sites leave very little evidence of any kiln structure, but they may well have been an organic framework built around a stack of pots, to keep the heat in a chamber? There is an archive with more images of the firing at this link.

All fired

These are mostly pots just out of the kiln firing. All came out well, no explosions or any cracked rims.

In the summer of 2022, Bill was demonstrating with the Ancient Wesex Network - making ancient pottery at various events. In late July 2022 he was at the Festival of Archaeology at Corfe Castle. He used the time during event appearances to make some of the pots for this project.

The pots were made using a range of different earthenware clay bodies dug from various locations (and some commercially prepared), used with an assortment of various granular materials added for texture. It has not been possible to replicate the correct clay for each type of pot. The surfaces have been finished off with different tools or techniques to create changes in appearance.

Early pots at Corfe Castle

Pots at Corfe Castle

Some smaller pots were fired in a simple bonfire at the Ancient Technology Centre in Cranborne, along with pottery made by folk attending a workshop earlier in the year. Generally a good firing, certainly hot enough to turn everything ceramic. Unfortunately one of the beakers suffered "spalling" damage, where the surface was blown away in sections as parts had not been dried out enough in the preheating phase. (see bottom section of this page to see the method used in this type of firing.

Bonfire firing at ATC

Below are images of the pots as they are made, but listed numbered in order of age of original pot, with a copy of the archaeological illustration or other image used to make them, so folk can play spot the difference!








(Yes there are two attempts at number 6!)















Several of these small incense pots have been made, to explore the shapes and decorations and also how they can be made.

18 19





24. and 25. have been deleted from list.






So the second number 29 went a bit wrong, the extreme temperature and gentle breeze at Corfe Castle dried the pieces out too quickly, before they were pinched out to the correct size and shape. So here is a "hybrid urn"!













39 making


Also take a look at the archive page about the pottery replicas Bill made for the Hengistbury Head Visitor Centre, a similar project in 2013.

Project in 2006

Bill Crumbleholme worked on a project with some students, investigating prehistoric pottery, during the autumn and winter of 2006.

After the success, see below, further work was undertaken in late 2007 and 2008.

Clay was sourced from a riverside bank in Purbeck, the students refined it and prepared it and made some beakers. They also made a range of inclusions - crushing some of Bill's waster pottery from the seasons bonfires.

A visit to Upwey in early December 2006 featured a bonfire firing of their pottery and some tablets of various blends of clays and inclusions for analysis.

Below are some images of the day's activities, which also included Kate Verkooijen's demonstrations of Bronze age cooking and textiles. This site will feature a separate section on Kate and her efforts.

The pottery is just beginning to turn colour, after a couple of hours of preheating inside a ring of fire. So far no breakages!

A little while later ... the first pot has spalled - the bottom blown away - obviously the one which took the most work to make (with handles and everything!) and was previously voted pot most likely to look really good. Maker Dan had dug his own clay, hence the lighter colour, maybe it was not quite dried out enough.

Said Dan covering over the pots, now all nicely pre-heated, creating a firing chamber within the bonfire. The long sticks formed a roof to protect the pots from mechanical damage and to act like a simple kiln - they burnt underneath to start with which directed the heat downwards, without wasting too much straight into the air.

The pyre stacked up high, the flames starting to get a hold.

Going for the burn - the wood flares up - taking the temperature of the pottery up to about 850 C.

For about half an hour there is a pleasantly warm spectacle to watch, as the pots begin to glow red within the fire.

Meanwhile Bill tries a quicker way of firing a larger urn. Made at Durrington Walls in September 2006, it is a piece of Grooved Ware. It has been dried out (including a brief spell in an electric kiln the night before) and has been stood on a metal stand over the cooking fire to warm it up. Then planks of wood were stacked around it to form a simple enclosure, holding the heat in as the wood burnt.

Bill and Kate take a breather, watching the pagan ritual with St.Laurence in the background!

After the planks had burnt and fallen away, the pot was revealed - still in one piece, but with a couple of small cracks running up it.

After a bit of re-arrangement the fire flared up again, trying to bake it through.
Sadly after it had cooled, the pot fell apart when lifted up, the cracks were worst than they appeared and the pot was not baked through, with a dark core showing on the broken sections. Another one for the grog bucket!

The main fire was raked out and the pots pulled up with sticks.

They sat around cooling down, until they could be handled and inspected.

Stacked up for comparison - no prizes, but some good trophies to take home as a reminder of degree level mud pie making!

There were very few breakages, a couple of spalled bases, no cracking of rims. Some carbon smudging, but that adds a visual enhancement.
The smaller sizes help to avoid cracks caused by temperature differentials (uneven heating or cooling).